Wei-Kuo Tao

NASA/GSFC, Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes
During the past decade, numerical weather and global non-hydrostatic models have started using more complex microphysical schemes originally developed for high-resolution cloud resolving models (CRMs) with 1-2 km or less horizontal resolutions. These microphysical schemes affect the dynamic through the release of latent heat (buoyancy, loading and pressure gradient), the radiation through the cloud coverage (vertical distribution of cloud species), and surface processes through rainfall (both amount and intensity). Recently, several major improvements of ice microphysical processes (or schemes) have been developed for cloud-resolving models (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, GCE, model) and regional scale (Weather Research and Forecast, WRF) models. These improvements include an improved 3-ICE (cloud ice, snow and graupel) scheme (Lang et al. 2010); a 4-ICE (cloud ice, snow, graupel and hail; Lang et al. 2013) scheme and a spectral bin microphysics scheme and two different two-moment microphysics schemes. The performance of these schemes has been evaluated by using observational data from TRMM and major field campaigns. In this talk, we will present high-resolution GCE, WRF and MMF model simulations and compare the model results with observations [i.e., Typhoon (Morakot 2009), Anvil (AMMA 2006); MCSs (MC3E; 2010)]. In addition, the main issues of the microphysics schemes in high-resolution (1-6 km grid spacing) numerical models will be discussed.