CLiVEC 7

August 7th - 24, 2012

The seventh and final cruise for the project entitled "Impacts of Climate Variability on Primary Production and Carbon Distributions in the Middle Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Maine" (CLiVEC) was carried out on board the R/V Henry Bigelow from August 7-24, 2012. CLiVEC is a joint research project with researchers from Old Dominion University (ODU) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The overall objective of the project is to study the effects of inter-annual and decadal climate variability on primary production and carbon distributions using the results from these extensive field measurements as well as the satellite records available from the region.

The Bigelow is a single-hulled research vessel that is 209 feet long (63.8m) and has a breadth of 49.2 ft (15m). It is stationed at the Newport naval base in Rhode Island and operated by NOAA. All previous CLiVEC cruises were carried out on the NOAA R/V Delaware II; however, this vessel has been decommissioned and was no longer available.

R/V Bigelow in Port

Vessel: R/V Bigelow
Location: Northeastern US Continental Margin 
Participants: Scott Freeman, Mike Novak, and Dirk Aurin
PI: Jerry Prezioso

 

Sunset aboard the Bigelow

Sunset observed from the flying bridge of the Bigelow

All of the CLiVEC field sampling was done on cruises of opportunity made possible by NOAA through the Ecosystems Monitoring Program (EcoMon). EcoMon is an extension of the Marine Resources Monitoring Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project begun in 1978 to monitor the health of the fisheries in the northeast US continental margin. On all previous CLiVEC cruises, surface biogeochemical discrete samples were collected from the ship’s flow-through sea water system as well as at multiple depths collected from Niskin bottles deployed on a CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) rosette package maintained by NOAA. Fluorometric dissolved organic matter (FDOM) and beam transmission data were also measured continuously by plumbing instruments into the ships flow through system.

Station Locations

Station locations for CLiVEC 7 cruise

For this final cruise, three Ocean Ecology Laboratory personnel (Scott Freeman, Mike Novak, and Dirk Aurin) participated in order to deploy and compare two free-fall profiling optical radiometers manufactured by different companies to measure Apparent Optical Properties (AOP). An Inherent Optical Properties (IOP) package was also mounted on the CTD rosette and deployed at depths up to 150 meters. In addition, a barrel equipped with a CTD, a WET Labs ac-s, and an FDOM fluorometer was plumbed into the ships flow-through system to make continuous measurements. The instruments were plumbed in-line to avoid any lag time from the resident time of the water in the barrel. More detailed descriptions of these instruments are provided later in this report.

Preparing the Rosette

Bigelow Crew Prepares the Rosette for the Sunset Station

Staff sampled 53 rosette stations and 26 flow-through stations during the sixteen working days at sea. On average, three CTD rosette stations and two flow-through stations were sampled each day. AOP profiles were conducted before or after the CTD cast when there were no light or weather limitations. A fourth CTD cast was sampled on days with clear skies at times near satellite overpasses when time permitted it. (See Table 1 for an extensive list of discrete and instrumental measurements made at stations).

Scott Freeman.

Scott Freeman prepares to deploy Satlantic Hyperpro

For oceanographic sampling, the R/V Bigelow was equipped with a SeaBird 9/11 Plus CTD instrument with recording system as well as a chlorophyll fluorescence meter, and an oxygen sensor (SBE 43). These were attached to a 12-bottle (10 liters each) rosette for the purpose of collecting water at pre-defined depths. The ship has a clean seawater flow through system equipped with a thermosalinograph (TSG) and pCO2 gas analyzer. A line from the system was plumbed directly into our flow-through instruments mounted on a rack inside the barrel. The barrel was filled with the exhaust water from the instruments to keep them at ambient temperature to avoid any fogging issues.

Table 1: Discrete Samples Collected

Parameter

Number of samples collected

HPLC Pigments

208

ap

208

Particulate Organic Carbon

529

aCDOM

144

Dissolved Organic Carbon

464

Suspended Particulate Matter

104

 

The following biogeochemical parameters were collected at every station (Table 1):

  • HPLC Pigments
  • Particulate Absorption (ap)
  • Particulate Organic Carbon (POC)
  • Absorption Due to Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (aCDOM)
  • Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC)
  • Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)

 

Samples for each parameter were collected from the CTD rosette at the surface (~3-4m), the chlorophyll maximum, and just below the thermocline. In addition, water was collected near the bottom at stations that were deeper than 90 meters for CDOM, DOC, and POC.

Wet Lab for CLiVEC 7

Dirk Aurin, CJ Stark, and Christian Kernisan 
Process Discrete Samples in the Chemistry Web Lab

For in-water optics, staff measured the absorption, attenuation, and backscattering of particles in the water. The IOP package installed on the CTD rosette consisted of a WET Labs ac-s, dh-4, and bb-9. The ac-s measures absorption and attenuation (and total scattering by difference) at ~ 80 wavelengths between 400 and 740 nm, while the bb-9 measures backscatter at 9 wavelengths and 117°. The dh-4 provides power and stores data collected by the other instruments. Downwelling irradiance (Ed) was measured using a Satlantic OCR-7 radiometer mounted to the top of the rosette package, and a Seabird 49 provided pressure, temperature, and conductivity measurements. The system was battery-powered, with files offloaded between casts. Because of the depth limitations of the battery pack (150 m), there were two stations where IOP data was not collected.

Two hand-deployed radiometer packages were also employed. The Satlantic HyperPro system measures Es (surface downwelling irradiance; separate instrument from the profiler), Ed, and Lu(upwelling radiance) at ~135 wavelengths between 350 and 800 nm. The Biospherical C-OPS measures the same parameters at 19 wavelengths between 300 and 900 nm. From these measurements, water leaving radiance (Lw) and remote-sensing reflectance (RRS) can be calculated. A multi-cast method was used for deploying the radiometers. At most stations, one deep cast and two 10m casts were made. Time constraints prevented the staff from using both sets of radiometers each day, as had been planned. However, near the end of the cruise both were used for four stations. At other stations, the Satlantic HyperPro system was used, as it was easier to deploy quickly, and there were a few stations for which the weather conditions did not permit data collection. In total, 46 stations had HyperPro data collected, while five stations had C-OPS data collected.

Table 2 Station Information. The numbers in the last three columns are file names. 

Station

Day

GMT

Bottom Depth

Lat

Long

% Cloud

IOPs

(acbb)

Hyperpro

(EdLuEs)

C-Ops

(EdLuEs)

2

8/7

2259

38

41.089

-71.042

80

archive.043

2240

 

8

8/8

1126

69.8

40.534

-71.366

80

archive.046

1212

 

10

8/8

1656

83

40.372

-71.669

100

archive.050

1717

 

10.1

8/8

2009

76.2

40.067

-72.192

 

 

 

 

11

8/8

2252

58.8

39.917

-72.619

100

archive.051

2222

 

19

8/9

1121

99.1

39.093

-72.846

30

archive.052

1141

 

21

8/9

1435

 

39.376

-73.219

 

 

 

 

23

8/9

1633

50.3

39.359

-73.457

35

archive.053

1551

 

24

8/9

1804

56

39.097

-73.496

 

 

 

 

26

8/9

2301

115

38.718

-73.185

40

archive.054

2229

 

31

8/10

1146

54.9

37.848

-74.576

100

archive.055

1206

 

32

8/10

1414

 

37.496

-74.657

 

 

 

 

34

8/10

1711

32.4

37.461

-75.098

100

archive.056

 

 

34.1

8/10

1958

40.4

36.993

-75.171

 

 

 

 

35

8/10

2259

31.7

36.531

-75.235

100

archive.057

 

 

40

8/11

1118

77.6

35.999

-74.921

100

archive.058

 

 

42

8/11

1424

34

35.805

-75.309

 

 

 

 

44

8/11

1722

23

35.985

-75.520

100

archive.059

 

 

44.1

8/11

1932

28.2

36.406

-75.461

 

 

 

 

45

8/11

2236

24.6

36.810

-75.370

90

archive.060

2156

 

52

8/12

1143

40.4

38.327

-74.615

40

archive.061

1158

 

53

8/12

1355

46.5

38.473

-74.377

 

 

 

 

54

8/12

1703

22

38.822

-74.742

20

archive.062

1641

 

54.1

8/12

1945

29.6

39.033

-74.317

 

 

 

 

55

8/12

2231

22.1

39.433

-74.077

50

archive.063

2208

 

62

8/13

1127

23

40.577

-73.198

0

archive.064

1149

 

63

8/13

1344

34.8

40.629

-72.776

 

 

 

 

64

8/13

1731

34.4

40.876

-72.155

5

archive.065

1702

 

65

8/13

1924

49.3

40.876

-72.155

20

archive.066

1846

 

67

8/13

2239

63.1

40.605

-71.782

20

archive.067

2206

 

71

8/14

1123

141.6

40.043

-70.603

0

archive.068

1144

 

71.1

8/14

1433

187.9

40.016

-70.140

 

 

 

 

72

8/14

1915

228.1

39.932

-69.508

10

archive.069

1750

1806

73

8/14

2322

82.6

40.320

-69.822

10

archive.070

2253

 

79

8/15

1201

83

40.647

-69.105

10

archive.071

1216

 

80

8/15

1408

 

40.607

-69.884

 

 

 

 

81

8/15

1628

64.8

40.682

-68.768

10

archive.072

1557

 

82

8/15

1830

59

40.782

-68.287

 

 

 

 

83

8/15

2218

89.6

40.635

-67.944

50

archive.073

2139

 

89

8/16

1157

49.5

41.049

-67.119

80

archive.074

1209

 

90

8/16

1421

66.1

40.930

-67.710

 

 

 

 

91

8/16

1639

72.1

40.867

-67.659

10

archive.075

1605

 

95

8/16

2231

46.3

41.178

-67.766

0

archive.076

2151

 

104

8/17

1120

94.6

41.517

-66.201

0

archive.077

1137

 

105

8/17

1414

470

41.605

-65.889

 

 

 

 

106

8/17

1804

2014.6

41.756

-65.437

80

archive.078

1657

 

107

8/17

2258

228.4

42.226

-65.779

10

 

2206

 

113

8/18

1116

67.8

41.964

-66.798

100

archive.079

 

 

115

8/18

1427

66.4

42.094

-67.397

 

 

 

 

116

8/18

1649

68.7

42.019

-67.667

70

archive.080

1610

 

117

8/18

1825

42.4

41.735

-67.602

 

 

 

 

119

8/18

2317

41.1

41.561

-68.226

 

archive.081

 

 

124

8/19

1132

203.6

42.331

-68.776

100

archive.082

1146

 

125

8/19

1410

204

42.340

-68.287

 

 

 

 

126

8/19

1717

194

42.684

-68.286

90

archive.083

1638

 

127

8/19

2215

326.4

42.490

-67.374

100

archive.084

2134

 

132

8/20

2215

129.9

43.029

-66.344

100

archive.085

1204

 

133

8/20

1400

68.8

43.298

-66.538

 

 

 

 

134

8/20

1629

232.2

43.402

-67.074

90

archive.086

1610

 

134.1

8/20

1914

189.4

43.621

-67.175

 

 

 

 

135

8/20

2200

181.4

43.789

-67.244

90

archive.087

2103

 

141

8/21

1252

248.2

43.397

-67.688

50

archive.088

1215

 

141.1

8/21

1408

236

43.256

-67.684

 

 

 

 

142

8/21

1740

171.2

43.036

-67.690

30

archive.091

1545

 

143

8/21

1847

 

43.072

-67.938

 

 

 

 

144

8/21

2158

209.7

43.056

-68.364

10

archive.092

2110

 

148

8/22

1216

170.5

43.578

-69.306

5

archive.093

1231

 

149

8/22

1430

135.9

43.518

-69.710

 

 

 

 

150

8/22

1806

183.7

43.159

-69.847

15

archive.094

1703

1720

151

8/22

2008

164.8

43.114

-69.114

30

archive.095

1916

1930

152

8/22

2257

104.6

43.001

-70.418

15

archive.096

2224

 

158

8/23

1118

35.6

42.314

-70.277

10

archive.097

1142

 

160

8/23

1357

87

42.419

-70.618

 

 

 

 

161

8/23

1719

32.8

42.418

-70.855

20

archive.098

1610

1651

162

8/23

1934

80.1

42.465

-70.643

20

archive.099

1856

1831

163

8/23

2244

102.8

42.538

-70.429

10

archive.100

2208

 

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